Textual Criticism and Authority

I am a regular listener to Dr. James White’s The Dividing Line that he normally broadcasts on Tuesday and Thursday afternoons weekly. Lately, Dr. White has been dealing with the issue of what we call Textual Criticism. Textual criticism is a crucial area of study for Christian scholars (and should be done only by Christian scholars, frankly) to help unveil better clarity on the original nature of the original books of Scripture.

I personally find the subject very fascinating as a kind of outsider to it. I am not a scholar, nor trained in the Greek or Hebrew. I am simply one who loves history, and hence the history of the manuscripts of sacred Scripture. But more than this, the study of textual criticism is not simply geeking out on the history of biblical manuscripts. It’s an extremely important area that Christians should be aware of. Although I am not in any way a trained scholar on this subject, I can at least grasp the basic, fundamental issues as a layperson and use these important facts in apologetic contexts, in a time when it’s more needed than ever. Already in several evangelistic situations I have had to get into the subject (though mostly in brief) of the transmission of Scripture to demonstrate that Jesus’s words, “Heaven and earth may pass away, but my words will by no means pass away” in Matthew 24:35 are true.

We have a great and luscious wealth of manuscript evidence for the reliability of our sacred texts today, more than we have of anything in antiquity. One of the things I love to talk about most is how remarkably well-kept Scripture is today, and how Jesus’s words of Matthew 24:35 have, in fact, been kept true.

But there is a sect of Christians which we might call the TR-Only Advocates, or the Traditional Text Advocates who seem to be making the case against textual criticism and its wonderful discoveries. “TR” stands for Textus Receptus (Latin for “Received Text”). The TR is a text created by the sixteenth century Roman Catholic scholar Desiderius Erasmus and has become a basis, if not the basis, of translations of the Bible in the Reformation (including the King James Bible). It is often considered a very “Protestant Bible” (despite having its origin in a Roman Catholic). It served as the base Greek translation for the vast majority of Protestant translations in the sixteenth century and on until the nineteenth century.

It would make sense, therefore, to see the Textus Receptus as very crucial and important to post-Protestant/Reformation translations of Scripture, such as the Geneva Bible, the Bishop’s Bible, the Tyndale Bible, and of course, the King James Bible; translations made by men of the Reformation. It is upon this basis that many of the TR advocates argue against the overall textual critical method of translation.

This of course is not all those who see the Alexandrian findings as unprofitable. There are others who are not necessarily TR-only, but still insist that the word of God has been purely kept in the Byzantine, or majority text family. And that of course, makes sense. The majority contains much that the Alexandrian (the minority) do not contain. That issue can be discussed later, what I wish to point out here, because I know that some will seek to misrepresent me, is that not all who reject the Alexandrian findings are TR-only. Not all are King James Only. For that purpose, I will distinguish in this article between them. When I use the term “TR-only” if you are not TR-only, instead of quoting me and accusing me of lumping everyone into one group, recognize that I said this of TR-onlyists, not you.

Presuppositional Apologetics

What I would like to do here is to demonstrate a very serious error in a category confusion that the TR-only movement engages in, and Dr. White has pointed out numerous times on his program, and that is the misuse of Reformed Presuppositional Apologetics to defend the TR. Presuppositionalism generally relies on what is known as the Transcendental Argument for the existence of God (TAG), which in essence argues that it is impossible to reason in any human capacity without starting with the presupposition of the triune God’s existence.

Presuppositional apologetics is almost entirely a reformed apologetic, and arguably the only consistent form of apologetics. It’s power lies in its ability to push any meaningful discussion back to foundations and epistemology. What is the necessary epistemological starting position to understand reality? On its face it sounds circular, and it actually is, but it is circular in what I would say is a positive sense of circular argumentation. It is circular in the sense that it does not need, nor does it ever look outside its own foundations for validation, due to its very nature. That is extremely important to grasp. It, in and of itself, contains all necessary principles to understand the subject in debate, including the subject of its self-existence. It is, as it were, self-sustaining.

Who else fits this description but God Himself? When an atheist asks us the question “Prove to me that God exists. Where is the evidence?” he’s already asking the wrong question. The argument implies God’s existence depends on the universe to exist, and hence, any way the Christian attempts to answer the question is to commit intellectual suicide. God does not require a universe to validate His existence, the universe requires Him. And it is starting with God’s own preexistence, His absolute, self-sustaining and life-governing ontological nature as the I AM that is necessary for anything to exist in the first place. So the bottom line is that the atheist’s question proves God’s existence because in the question assumes purpose, existence, person hood, meaning, reason and logic, none of which he or she has outside of the triune God.

The essence of presuppositionalism is that God is the standard because there is nothing over and above Him. The prophet Isaiah rhetorically asks, “Who has measured the Spirit of the LORD, or what man shows Him His counsel?” (Isaiah 40:13 ESV). In other words, who does God consult? What authority exists over Him that He should submit to in order to do as He wishes? The obvious answer is no one. He Himself is the counsel and standard. He doesn’t depend on anything to exist. In this way we demonstrate that God is the necessary, self-sufficient presupposition for all predication on anything regarding existence.

TR-Onlyism as Presuppositionalism?

It is upon this basis, and the basis of God’s sovereignty over time and space (the reformed doctrine of predestination) that the TR-only movement attempts to stand to demonstrate the validity of their position. As I said, presuppositional apologetics is essentially a reformed apologetic, and most of the TR people are reformed, being heavily influenced by the Reformers themselves, which is natural if they advocate the Textus Receptus (again, despite it being of a Roman Catholic priest). Reformed apologetics also has at its core the presupposition that the Spirit is who convicts men of sin, carries His saints, and it is the word of God, the inerrant sufficiency of God-breathed Scripture that brings God’s elect unto salvation. Therefore, the Scriptures are a divine revelation.

All of this I agree with, but the issue lies in utilizing this presupposition in defense of the TR, or even the majority text. The TR-only advocates believe that the Textus Receptus is the standard for all translations of the Bible in the same way that God Himself is the standard for all existence. A conflation seems to be involved here in arguing that since God is ontologically over and above His creation, His breathed-out word is as well, and hence is not tainted with the mist of time and the errors of man.

There really is a kind of new revelation concept coming from this movement, whether they will admit that or not. The idea is that at least 1500 years after the apostles and their writings and the Septuagint translation, etc., God gave us something new in the Textus Receptus that makes it over and above these older, therefore incredibly valuable manuscript findings. The TR seals the deal, as it were, and shuts the inquiry up forever. It’s almost as if canon has closed… again. For real this time.

The argument is, let’s toss aside these new findings and just stick with the TR as our standard text. The reasons for doing so may vary, but the premise is the same: the Textus Receptus is our ultimate text and why? Because the Reformers used it. It is a Protestant principle. Because the confessions and creeds of the Reformation utilize translations based on the TR, that makes it the inspired text, and to be reformed, and hence, to hold to reformed apologetics, you have to hold this position.

The problem is that saying that God is the presupposition for any predication of knowledge and truth is very different than saying that one particular received text, which was made through textual criticism that these people mostly reject, are the same concept. The former is a valid form of circular argumentation, and why? Because as we have shown, He is Himself the standard, He is self-sustaining, self-attested and by Him and through Him all things exist. That cannot be said of the ladder. The ladder came into existence at one point, and its existence depends upon prior manuscripts to exist. It does not derive its existence from itself.

I anticipate an objection at this point, and that is, “Doesn’t that then mean that divine revelation depends on Paul to exist?” After all, if I am going to say that the Textus Receptus exists based upon prior, external forces, doesn’t that mean God’s breathed-out Scripture does as well? Doesn’t that subject God to His creation? Well, the problem here again is an issue with categories, and arguing from a presupposition that the Textus Receptus is itself divine revelation. It is not, and this claim demonstrates a very subtle, yet serious confusion between divine revelation and a translation of divine revelation.

What Paul wrote is theopneustos (God-breathed). What scribes and translators centuries down the road copied of what Paul wrote through the ages is not theopneustos, and that I think is the real problem. This is a real confusion between divine revelation and transmission of that revelation into different languages and into mass quantity.

Ecclesiastical Authority Over Scripture

My concern here is the abuse of presuppositionalism, and perhaps a misunderstanding of what it actually is. Not long ago, in a post in the Reformed Presuppositional Apologetics group, someone had asked the group what our response would be to the accusation of corruption making the Bible unreliable. I read through some of the responses and though there were some truths, a good majority of the arguments demonstrated that within the reformed community are people who want to assert presuppositional apologetics who are having trouble understanding what it is.

The majority of answers were to respond by asking the accusers “What’s your standard?” There is an important time and place for that question, but the fact is that the question was directed to you, not them. Can you answer the question? Among many Christians claiming to hold presuppositional apologetics, there seems to be the idea that this justifies irrational responses, dismissing of objections and just throwing out, “What’s your standard?” everywhere, and that evidence serves virtually no purpose in any apologetic context. Listening to some of the TR-onlyists Dr. White was in dialogue with, some of them made the claim that because God is sovereign over time, He therefore can preserve the TR, and use heretics like Erasmus to do it. The problem is that not only is that really a simplistic answer, but I can use that just as well to defend textual criticism. If God can preserve His word in the TR, despite sinful men and through sinful men, why can He not preserve His word in the history of textual criticism, despite and through sinful men?

The fact of the matter is that presuppositional apologetics is not the outright refusal to engage objections through evidence. No one suggests of course that evidence is how we know God exists. Evidence is what supports God’s existence, and Christians should therefore not be afraid of it. This again is how we find the balance so that we don’t go overboard on either side of the boat.

It is upon this misunderstanding of what presuppositional apolgetics is that I think people tend to flock towards using ecclesiastical means to further defend this perspective. People seem to have confused presuppositionalism with sola ecclesia, the idea that the church being the institution of God, is a divine revelation in and of itself. In some sense, perhaps that is true, but things get dangerous when we treat the church as a heavenly institution, and being led by the Spirit hence makes infallible claims of authority over, in this case, translations of sacred Scripture.

I don’t think such persons do this intentionally, and I want to emphasize that. I’m not going to stoop to the childish ad hominem tactics of accusing the other side of being a quasi-Romanist bunch. But what I am saying is that despite our wanting to say one thing, we might actually be pushing something else when we confuse different things together, such as the difference between God’s self-attesting, necessity of being for any and all existence, and transmissions by other humans of God’s revelation to mankind. That becomes very dangerous. This is the kind of thinking that has begun to elevate the confessions and creeds of the Reformation to the standard of Scripture.

The Danger of Tradition

Many reformed Christians seem to have a greater instinct to fall back on the confessions rather than Scripture. I myself have read the creeds and confessions as a reformed Christian. I think they are great, wonderful tools of clarity. But I would not consider myself strictly confessional. Although I think they’re great, I’m not all that fascinated with them. Reading the works of the great Reformers is also a wonderful, important element of learning. I love reading Calvin’s Institutes regularly. But my friends, we must be careful not to treat these men as modern-day apostles. I think we are more prone to this than we like to admit.

I had a friend who just recently converted from a reformed baptist to Roman Catholic and it shocked me. He is a smart young man, who I thought was solid in the reformed faith. I found myself one day contemplating how such a smart young man, a great thinker and defender of the faith of the apostles could end up crossing the Tiber River (converting to Roman Catholicism). I think the answer lies in becoming too immersed in the writings of the church fathers over and above the Scriptures that establish them.

Don’t misunderstand me, I am not saying that church history is not important. It’s my love of church history that makes me write this article, and to defend textual criticism over this kind of textual ecclesiasticism. What I am saying is that I think many if not most of the converts to Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy happen because men put far too much faith in the church than they do the Scriptures. They confuse the words of church fathers with sacred Scripture itself.

We cannot afford to do that, and we also cannot afford to think that because we are reformed, because we carry the gospel in its most crystallized essence from the Apostles, we are immune to falling for traditions over and above Scripture. It troubles me when I hear reformed Christians speak of Calvinism as being “the gospel”. It’s not an utterly untrue statement, but it can be taken as one. I’m uncomfortable with it, and avoid it myself.

I think of John the Baptist when he rebuked the Pharisees and Sadducees. He told them to repent, for the kingdom of God was at hand, and before they even opened their mouth in response, what did he tell them? Do not presume that because you are sons of Abraham that you are safe. The promise doesn’t come by privilege (Matthew 3:7-10). In the same way, we cannot presume to think that because we stand on reformed confessions, creeds, and synods that we are safe. That is the heart and sole of sola ecclesia, not Sola Scriptura. The two are not the same thing by any stretch of the imagination, and to confuse them is costly.

Conclusion

As I said in my opening, I am not a professional in this area. In fact, I have run this article by a friend of mine who is much more knowledgeable of this subject than I am so that I don’t get anything wrong. But while I can certainly, as an untrained layperson in this subject, get certain facts wrong, this doesn’t mean that I cannot grasp the basic issue of this subject.

Listening to the TR-only arguments against Dr. White as he goes through them on The Dividing Line are stunning. Much of my criticisms in this article are based on those responses that I could not believe I was hearing. The issue here is not complicated at all. Most of Dr. White’s criticisms go completely ignored, such as, if the TR is the basis of all proper translations (which again, exists based upon prior manuscripts that exist in the history of textual criticism), what in the world were the church fathers using in the forth and fifth century in Nicaea and Chalcedon?

But the response, so far as I can tell, has been nothing, because as Dr. White has said, tradition is being defended, not truth. Tradition is presumptuous, tradition is a pseudo-truth. It pretends to be a standard when it’s really just an empty shell that profits no one. The essence of the Reformation was to challenge the traditions of the Roman Catholic Church. But my friends, brothers and sisters, we cannot afford to presume on the Reformation itself. Like all good literature, Reformation writings and teachings point you to Christ, they don’t claim to be the door or gate themselves.

This of course doesn’t go for all the TR advocates. I wanted to be very careful to differentiate between TR-onlyists, and TR-preference. If you prefer the Textus Receptus, that’s fine. If you think it’s more reliable, that is fine too. But this becomes dangerous when it becomes a fundamental, it becomes a kind of dogma, because it has no basis in foundational truth, and when you are standing upon something that is not self-attested, founded and rooted in truth, the only thing left is traditionalism, and the only thing that can defend that is ecclesiasticism, which is what the Reformation was fighting.

The Plurality of Elders

How does a society avoid the self-destructive mistakes of the past? What are the important measures to take to ensure a long-lasting, healthy world? Is it possible for any societal institution to last? Perhaps it is not, and there are not many examples, if any, of such institutions outlasting the ages. The Roman church can be argued to be one, but is it really the same Roman church from the Middle Ages?

Kingdoms rise and fall, and democratic societies rise and fall. Institutions within those societies rise and fall, and what are the reasons? There are many, to be sure, but there is a common reality of each collapse of a university, a church, a kingdom or any nation, and that is when power comes into one body.

This is what happened to Rome, which started out in a democratic-type rule. When the society decayed, the structure of the society corroded and then one man comes to change everything. In the French Revolution, the decadent society, in its attempt to overthrow the monarchical corruption, elects its own madman, whose madness leads to rivers of blood in the streets, and ultimately the rule of Napoleon. In the 1930s, Germany was in a crisis point, and in that desperation, just like Rome, looked to a messiah, one man who would bring them out, and that man was Hitler.

We are not far from repeating such a thing in America. In each case, it seems like one man rises to power, and we always forget that fundamental doctrine of the depravity of man, and what happens when corrupt man holds absolute power? Never, in my historical studies, have I ever seen that work well. Even in the Bible, what happens when Israel elects, against God’s command, one king to rule over them? Saul happens.

Plurality or Absolute Authority?

Notice, however, in the midst of all of this, in America, when the American Revolution comes to a close, what the founding fathers do. Instead of looking to appoint one man over their new founded nation, they do the opposite. They elect a plurality of leadership. That plurality of leadership in the head of the government, a three-fold separation of power (two branches themselves made up of a plural body) has allowed America to go as long as it has, which, as you ought to see by now, is slowly and slowly deteriorating into a dictatorship, as the executive branch attains more and more power he was never supposed to have.

How can the church avoid this great blight on society? How do we as the church not become like the culture and society around us? The Roman church is ruled by the order of one man, the Pope. The result of this form of ecclesiology has led to the accumulation of unbiblical traditions, unbiblical decrees, and an unbiblical church. This great dilemma came to its logical conclusion in the Great Schism of the Roman church in the eleventh century. What happens when two men, on the same grounds of authority, claim to be the Pope? You get the huge mess that was the Papal Schism of the Roman Catholic Church in the fourteenth and fifteenth century, where up to three popes rivaled each other.

What is, then, the biblical model of church government? How is a church to be made that avoids the problems that we have shown above? Is it to become a monarchical, or monolithic order itself? With a single authority? Obviously not. Most evangelicals would agree with me at this point. Of course we don’t want to have one guy at the head of any Christian organization of churches. That would be like Rome, or the LDS church.

However, how do such institutions like the Roman Catholic Church and the Ladder Day Saints begin? By one guy who claimed to have authority from God over everyone else. In Joseph Smith’s case, that didn’t begin in a church. But a church began under his single authority. However, in Rome’s case, that did begin within the Christian church as one bishop claimed to have special authority by himself.

We have multi-campus sites now in America, where one pastor is owning churches; one pastor’s ministry leads to multiple churches being planted, all under the name of that one pastor’s ministry, and are hence his churches. What is the biblical order of church leadership, then? How does the Bible speak towards how a church should function in leadership? I am going to take a closer look at this issue and explore the biblical data to see if the Bible provides any basis for the idea of a single pastor per church, or if the Bible speaks in fact towards a multiple-eldership system for church.

Church Leadership: Elder or Elders?

As always, Scripture is our starting point. I do not want to approach this purely from my own personal bias, and hence I will attempt to deal with the data from a neutral point. Since it is not until the New Testament that we have the church, we are going to be looking in the New Testament itself, and once again, to remind ourselves, what model is the Bible giving us for church leadership? A single pastor? Or a plurality of elders?

In 1 Timothy 3:1, Paul mentions the office of an overseer. In the Greek (episkopes) it means “supervisor” or to have oversight. Paul provides the qualifications of being an overseer in the following verses, but we are currently not concerned with qualifications, but rather the structure of a church by bliblical standards. We know Paul speaks of overseers, but what exactly are they? So far, based on the Greek word, an overseer is one with an authority of supervision, oversight in the church. He is a leader of some fashion.

In Acts 20:28, as Paul prepares for what is likely his final journey before his martyrdom, he exhorts the Ephesian leaders to pay careful attention to their souls, and then the souls of all (in the Ephesian church). What does he call these people? He calls them overseers (episkopous; in the plural). These are the leaders of the Ephesian church. Not Ephesian churches, but the Ephesian church (Acts 20:17). These would be what we today would call presbyters or simply elders.

What we see then is that the Ephesian church functioned, not with a single overseer, but multiple overseers, i.e., elders. In his letter to the Philippians, Paul in the very first verse acknowledges the existence of “overseers and deacons”. In Titus 1, beginning with verse 5, Paul again gives a treatise on the qualifications for an elder, and once again, Paul commands that it is not an elder per town, but elders per town–the plural. Each church in each town was to have a plurality of elders, not one.

In Acts 11:30, relief to the brothers in Judea was sent to elders of Jerusalem. The plurality of elders is again mentioned of Jerusalem in Acts 16:4. In Acts 14:23, after making disciples in Lystra, Paul appoints elders, again indicating that the leadership was to be a plurality of leaders, not a single man over the flock. Here, however, an argument might be made to counter ours, in that while elders is plural, it also uses churches (plural). This can make a poignant case for one elder per church, if the consistent pattern of the New Testament ecclesiology supported that. Does it? It does not.

The Jerusalem council was made up of the elders of the church in Jerusalem (Acts 15:2). While James takes a prominent role in the matter, he by no means is the head of the whole committee.

All throughout the book of Acts, you find this consistent pattern. In no place and no way did the apostles give authority of a church in the hands of a single individual. Instead, the ecclesiology functioned in a plurality of elders. While Paul in his epistles to Timothy and to Titus, as well as Peter’s first epistle mention overseers and elders, and such letters can, in isolation, be used to promote the idea of a single pastor per church, the fact is that the whole of Scripture, and especially in the history of the church in Scripture, testifies against that idea.

The Tradition of Single Eldership

Why then, do we have so commonly in modern evangelicalism, all around the world, this idea of a single elder per church? A single pastor, if that word works better, per church? If this idea is not found in the New Testament, where exactly is it found? To make a long story short, it’s tradition. That’s the only place it could ever really be found. Just like with Rome, tradition comes in, and it is so subtle that if you are not careful it creeps in and replaces biblical authority. Even reformed people are not immune to this trap. How often do reformed Christians treat the confessions almost as a kind of quasi-scriptural concept? Too often, I’m afraid.

The reality is that we humans are made to be followers, and perhaps followers more than leaders. This is especially dangerous when in crisis moments, such as the historical things I discussed earlier in this article. When in crisis mode, people begin looking for a messiah. It happened in the Roman church, it can and is happening here in America. There’s nothing unnatural about that, of course. It is often in a mode of crisis that we do look for a hero. Isn’t that what Jesus is? When we come to that point where we realize we are doomed, we Christians run to Jesus.

But often times, in many situations, we can lose sight of that, and in the clutch moments as our society is facing, we are looking for someone to save us. For a lot, Donald Trump is that guy. As we enter the 2020 elections, we will soon see who the progressive cult’s hero of death will eventually be. But even in evangelicalism, we can tend to flock to “our hero” who we may see simply as the hero who leads us to the big hero, Jesus. But often times we don’t check ourselves, and that mini-hero really becomes our big hero, our great pastor, and he seems to have it all together and hence, we flock to him over others. He inadvertently becomes our mediator to Jesus.

Much of this is perhaps unintentional, but it is part of our nature, and we have to be aware of that. Far too many bad churches are the result of a single man in control of the church. I said that we are naturally followers, and we ought to be. Well we are also naturally prone to leadership and power, and we ought not to be. When we seek what we ought not have, with no accountability to others, that will not work well, and it has never worked well. This includes church life. This makes it all too easy for that one man to push upon his congregation particular theological concepts that, at best are not absolutely monolithic to Christendom, and at worst, become serious problems to Christendom, and the congregation is not aware of it–especially if they have preemptively accepted the idea of a single presbyter governing the church. That, as much as we may not want to admit it, has all the recipes of a cult in the making. It doesn’t typically happen that way, certainly, but all the cults did in fact begin that way.

That, I suspect, is where this tradition of a single elder for a church, or a multi-campus church concept comes from. However it comes, an important question that we must ask is, what would Paul have thought about this idea? What would the apostles have thought? Given the biblical data, would they have ever agreed to such an idea? I don’t think they would. Therefore this unbiblical idea of ecclesiology ought to be rejected on biblical grounds.

The Importance of a Plurality of Elders

Why would this concept be the consistent pattern the apostles adopt? The Bible does not explicitly state it (at least that I know of), but I think we can deduce the reason for it, and it goes back to history. Look at the history of the world and see how well the idea of a single person ruling a nation or any kind of institution worked out. And when those institutions had a plurality of leadership–a council of sorts to govern the body, the system worked. Take the United States again as a prime, modern example. It’s been able to withstand for this long because of its function. Even the Supreme Court is dictated by a plurality of bodies. Maybe the founding fathers, many of which not Christians themselves, read the Bible more carefully than modern evangelicals do today.

There is of course Paul’s doctrine of man, which you can find plainly in his epistle to the Romans. His view of fallen man is not kind (Romans 1:28-32, 3:1-18, Romans 8:5-8). If Paul’s view of fallen man was this radical (and godly, by the way), why would he ever trust one man with key positions of leadership, especially in the precious church of his precious Lord Jesus Christ?

The great benefit of this is not only a biblical command, although it most certainly is. There are also practical benefits of this. The first is, as we have alluded, that a plurality of elders; trusted, qualified men who have proven themselves mature and true ministers of the gospel, vastly reduces the possibility of a church falling away into corruption. A single elder who begins to stray is held accountable to the rest who, being elders themselves, will fulfill their duty to set that elder right.

Another is the fact that all of us need the gospel preached. We all, in other words, need a pastor. Elders themselves need an elder. Who is pastoring the pastor, in a church, if he has no accountability to others? For his own sake, he needs a pastor, and not one who is on a TV or computer screen in another state or country. He needs as much a personal relationship to pastoral ministry as we do. The plurality of eldership gives him that, and hence a healthier elder, which grants healthy eldership in the church and a healthy church.

The concept of a plurality of leadership is not only the consistent biblical concept, but it is also attested to in history as we have seen. There is not in any historical context that I know of, an indication that the idea of a single man leading a corporate body ever worked to the good of that society. The church, of all people, should be all the more hesitant to the idea of a single man leading a church, given the Bible’s doctrine of fallen man. As we have seen, the Bible’s consistent testimony, and especially the New Testament church’s consistent model of ecclesiology is that of a plurality of elders, not a single elder per church, and this is not only necessary for a healthy church, it is also a biblical concept and command.